A fighting chance
Listen to your peers open up about their role as advocates for patients with gastric and GEJ adenocarcinoma.
The phase III RAINBOW trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel vs placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after prior fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy. Major efficacy outcome measure was overall survival (OS). Supportive efficacy outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR). All patients were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 0 or 1. Prior to enrollment, 97% of patients had progressed during treatment or within 4 months after the last dose of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Twenty-five percent of patients had received anthracycline in combination with platinum/fluoropyrimidine therapy, while 75% did not. Patients were randomized 1:1 (N=665) to CYRAMZA 8 mg/kg (n=330) or placebo (n=335) every 2 weeks (on days 1 and 15) of each 28-day cycle. Patients in both arms received paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle.1,2
Primary measure—OS: Median OS with CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel was 9.6 months (95% CI: 8.5, 10.8) vs 7.4 months (95% CI: 6.3, 8.4) with placebo plus paclitaxel (hazard ratio 0.81 [95% CI: 0.68, 0.96]; P=0.017)*1
Supportive measure—PFS: Median PFS with CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel was 4.4 months (95% CI: 4.2, 5.3) vs 2.9 months (95% CI: 2.8, 3.0) with placebo plus paclitaxel (hazard ratio 0.64 [95% CI: 0.54, 0.75]; P<0.001)†1
Supportive measure: Significantly more patients responded to CYRAMZA combined with paclitaxel (28%; 95% CI: 23, 33) than to placebo plus paclitaxel (16%; 95% CI: 13, 20) (P<0.001)‡1
*The percentage of deaths at the time of analysis was 78% (256 patients) and 78% (260 patients) in the CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel and placebo plus paclitaxel treatment arms, respectively.1
†The percentage of events at the time of analysis was 85% (279 patients) and 88% (296 patients) in the CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel and placebo plus paclitaxel treatment arms, respectively.
‡Objective response rate was defined as complete plus partial response. Disease progression and tumor response were assessed by investigators in accordance with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1.3
An Option for the Fight
Your peers discuss the importance of having an approved second-line option for patients with gastric and GEJ adenocarcinoma.
CYRAMZA® (ramucirumab) as a single agent, or in combination with paclitaxel, is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after prior fluoropyrimidine- or platinum-containing chemotherapy.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION FOR CYRAMZA
WARNING: HEMORRHAGE, GASTROINTESTINAL PERFORATION, AND IMPAIRED WOUND HEALING
Hemorrhage: CYRAMZA increased the risk of hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, including severe and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic events. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience severe bleeding.
Gastrointestinal Perforation: CYRAMZA can increase the risk of gastrointestinal perforation, a potentially fatal event. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience a gastrointestinal perforation.
Impaired Wound Healing: Impaired wound healing can occur with antibodies inhibiting the VEGF pathway. Discontinue CYRAMZA therapy in patients with impaired wound healing. Withhold CYRAMZA prior to surgery and discontinue CYRAMZA if a patient develops wound healing complications.
Warnings and Precautions
- CYRAMZA increased the risk of hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, including severe and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic events. In study 1, which evaluated CYRAMZA as a single agent in advanced gastric cancer, the incidence of severe bleeding was 3.4% for CYRAMZA and 2.6% for placebo. In study 2, which evaluated CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel, the incidence of severe bleeding was 4.3% for CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel and 2.4% for placebo plus paclitaxel. Patients with gastric cancer receiving nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were excluded from enrollment in studies 1 and 2; therefore, the risk of gastric hemorrhage in CYRAMZA-treated patients with gastric tumors receiving NSAIDs is unknown. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience severe bleeding.
Arterial Thromboembolic Events (ATEs)
- Serious, sometimes fatal, ATEs including myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, and cerebral ischemia occurred in clinical trials including 1.7% of 236 patients who received CYRAMZA as a single agent for gastric cancer in study 1. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience a severe ATE.
- An increased incidence of severe hypertension occurred in patients receiving CYRAMZA as a single agent (8%) as compared to placebo (3%) and in patients receiving CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel (15%) as compared to placebo plus paclitaxel (3%). Control hypertension prior to initiating treatment with CYRAMZA. Monitor blood pressure every 2 weeks or more frequently as indicated during treatment. Temporarily suspend CYRAMZA for severe hypertension until medically controlled. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA if medically significant hypertension cannot be controlled with antihypertensive therapy or in patients with hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy.
Infusion-Related Reactions (IRRs)
- Prior to the institution of premedication recommendations across clinical trials of CYRAMZA, IRRs occurred in 6 out of 37 patients (16%), including 2 severe events. The majority of IRRs across trials occurred during or following a first or second CYRAMZA infusion. Symptoms of IRRs included rigors/tremors, back pain/spasms, chest pain and/or tightness, chills, flushing, dyspnea, wheezing, hypoxia, and paresthesia. In severe cases, symptoms included bronchospasm, supraventricular tachycardia, and hypotension. Monitor patients during the infusion for signs and symptoms of IRRs in a setting with available resuscitation equipment. Immediately and permanently discontinue CYRAMZA for grade 3 or 4 IRRs.
- CYRAMZA is an antiangiogenic therapy that can increase the risk of gastrointestinal perforation, a potentially fatal event. Four of 570 patients (0.7%) who received CYRAMZA as a single agent in clinical trials experienced gastrointestinal perforation. In study 2, the incidence of gastrointestinal perforations was also increased in patients who received CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel (1.2%) as compared to patients who received placebo plus paclitaxel (0.3%). Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience a gastrointestinal perforation.
Impaired Wound Healing
- Impaired wound healing can occur with antibodies inhibiting the VEGF pathway. CYRAMZA has not been studied in patients with serious or nonhealing wounds. CYRAMZA, an antiangiogenic therapy, has the potential to adversely affect wound healing. Discontinue CYRAMZA therapy in patients with impaired wound healing. Withhold CYRAMZA prior to surgery. Resume CYRAMZA following the surgical intervention based on clinical judgment of adequate wound healing. If a patient develops wound healing complications during therapy, discontinue CYRAMZA until the wound is fully healed.
Clinical Deterioration in Child-Pugh B or C Cirrhosis
- Clinical deterioration, manifested by new onset or worsening encephalopathy, ascites, or hepatorenal syndrome, was reported in patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis who received single-agent CYRAMZA. Use CYRAMZA in patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis only if the potential benefits of treatment are judged to outweigh the risks of clinical deterioration.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS)
- RPLS has been reported at a rate of <0.1% in clinical studies with CYRAMZA. Confirm the diagnosis of RPLS with MRI and discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who develop RPLS. Symptoms may resolve or improve within days, although some patients with RPLS can experience ongoing neurologic sequelae or death.
Proteinuria Including Nephrotic Syndrome
- Monitor proteinuria by urine dipstick and/or urinary protein creatinine ratio for the development of worsening of proteinuria during CYRAMZA therapy. Withhold CYRAMZA for urine protein levels that are ≥2 g over 24 hours. Reinitiate CYRAMZA at a reduced dose once the urine protein level returns to <2 g over 24 hours. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA for urine protein levels >3 g over 24 hours or in the setting of nephrotic syndrome.
- Monitor thyroid function during treatment with CYRAMZA.
- Based on its mechanism of action, CYRAMZA can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. Animal models link angiogenesis, VEGF, and VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) to critical aspects of female reproduction, embryofetal development, and postnatal development. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with CYRAMZA and for at least 3 months after the last dose of CYRAMZA.
Most Common Adverse Reactions—Single Agent
- The most commonly reported adverse reactions (all grades; grade 3/4) occurring in ≥5% of patients receiving CYRAMZA and ≥2% higher than placebo in study 1 were hypertension (16% vs 8%; 8% vs 3%), diarrhea (14% vs 9%; 1% vs 2%), headache (9% vs 3%; 0% vs 0%), and hyponatremia (6% vs 2%; 3% vs 1%).
- The most common serious adverse events with CYRAMZA in study 1 were anemia (3.8%) and intestinal obstruction (2.1%). Red blood cell transfusions were given to 11% of CYRAMZA-treated patients vs 8.7% of patients who received placebo.
- Clinically relevant adverse reactions reported in ≥1% and <5% of CYRAMZA-treated patients in study 1 were: neutropenia (4.7% vs 0.9%), epistaxis (4.7% vs 0.9%), rash (4.2% vs 1.7%), intestinal obstruction (2.1% vs 0%), and arterial thromboembolic events (1.7% vs 0%).
- Across clinical trials of CYRAMZA administered as a single agent, clinically relevant adverse reactions (including grade ≥3) reported in CYRAMZA-treated patients included proteinuria, gastrointestinal perforation, and infusion-related reactions. In study 1, according to laboratory assessment, 8% of CYRAMZA-treated patients developed proteinuria vs 3% of placebo-treated patients. Two patients discontinued CYRAMZA due to proteinuria. The rate of gastrointestinal perforation in study 1 was 0.8% and the rate of infusion-related reactions was 0.4%.
Most Common Adverse Reactions—Combination With Paclitaxel
- The most commonly reported adverse reactions (all grades; grade 3/4) occurring in ≥5% of patients receiving CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel and ≥2% higher than placebo plus paclitaxel in study 2 were fatigue/asthenia (57% vs 44%; 12% vs 6%), neutropenia (54% vs 31%; 41% vs 19%), diarrhea (32% vs 23%; 4% vs 2%), epistaxis (31% vs 7%; 0% vs 0%), hypertension (25% vs 6%; 15% vs 3%), peripheral edema (25% vs 14%; 2% vs 1%), stomatitis (20% vs 7%; 1% vs 1%), proteinuria (17% vs 6%; 1% vs 0%), thrombocytopenia (13% vs 6%; 2% vs 2%), hypoalbuminemia (11% vs 5%; 1% vs 1%), and gastrointestinal hemorrhage events (10% vs 6%; 4% vs 2%).
- The most common serious adverse events with CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel in study 2 were neutropenia (3.7%) and febrile neutropenia (2.4%); 19% of patients treated with CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel received granulocyte colony-stimulating factors.
- Adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of any component of the CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel combination in 2% or more patients in study 2 were neutropenia (4%) and thrombocytopenia (3%).
- Clinically relevant adverse reactions reported in ≥1% and <5% of the CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel-treated patients in study 2 were sepsis (3.1% for CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel vs 1.8% for placebo plus paclitaxel) and gastrointestinal perforations (1.2% for CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel vs 0.3% for placebo plus paclitaxel).
- No pharmacokinetic interactions were observed between ramucirumab (CYRAMZA) and paclitaxel.
Use in Specific Populations
- Pregnancy: Based on its mechanism of action, CYRAMZA can cause fetal harm. Animal models link angiogenesis, VEGF, and VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) to critical aspects of female reproduction, embryofetal development, and postnatal development. There are no available data on CYRAMZA use in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risks. No animal studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of ramucirumab on reproduction and fetal development. Advise females of reproductive potential of the potential risk for maintaining pregnancy, risk to the fetus, and risk to newborn and infant development, and to use effective contraception during CYRAMZA therapy and for at least 3 months following the last dose of CYRAMZA.
- Lactation: Because of the potential risk for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ramucirumab, advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with CYRAMZA.
- Females of Reproductive Potential: Advise females of reproductive potential that based on animal data CYRAMZA may impair fertility.
Please see full Prescribing Information for CYRAMZA, including Boxed Warnings for hemorrhage, gastrointestinal perforation, and impaired wound healing.
RB-G HCP ISI 17SEP2015